The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees (UNRWA) was established by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 302 in 1949. Its intended use was to facilitate a solution (resettlement and/or repatriation) for the 700,000 Arabs who fled their homes during the 1948 war. Resolution 302 made it clear that UNRWA was to be short-term. Direct relief was to be terminated in December of the following year. However, the General Assembly passed Resolution 393, which asserted: “direct relief cannot be terminated” and recommended the continuation of UNRWA activities and the establishment of a reintegration fund that would “prepare for the termination of international assistance and for the permanent reestablishment of refugees and their removal from relief.” Seven decades later, UNRWA’s “short-term” assistance has not helped facilitate a solution for the refugees, nor has it lead to the economic development. Conversely, UNRWA evolved from a temporary organization that supplied only emergency relief into a permanent governmental and developmental services providing bureaucracy that affirms dependency over self-sufficiency.
Meanwhile, the office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) was created in 1950, during the aftermath of the Second World War, to help millions of Europeans who had fled or lost their homes. UNHCR now handles ALL other refugees. UNHCR has helped over 50 million refugees to restart their lives.
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Despite predictions that the JCPOA would moderate Iran, Tehran has increased its violations of international law, acts of military & terroristic aggression, destabilized (and here) and ignited an arms race in the Middle East. It plans to boost its weaponry. Things continue to get worse, with Iran not even in compliance with the deal.
Known or Possible Iranian Violations of the JCPOA
• Prior to the deal, Iran refused to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) investigating its Possible Military Dimensions (PMD). Iran only enabled the IAEA to draw partial conclusions on 2 of the 12 elements. In 5 cases, the IAEA noted that PMD occurred despite Iran’s claims.
The Iraqi government was created by a new constitution in 2005, after the fall of Saddam Hussein. The government is led by a Kurdish President, currently Fuad Masum, a Shia Prime Minister, currently Haider Abadi, and a Sunni Arab Vice President, currently, Khodair Khozaei. The Prime Minister is the dominant leader. The population of Iraq is estimated to be 38 million, with two official languages, Arabic and Kurdish. Currently, the once powerful Islamic State (IS) Caliphate (both in Iraq and Syria) is in decline. The Kurdish areas in the north are considering secession from Iraq. The central government, as well as Iran and Turkey, all vociferously opposed Kurdish independence. The Iraqi army engaged with the Kurds over Kirkuk, with Iran and the PMF’s supportive of Iraqi forces. The Kurdish authorities retreated and are now only in the official Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) areas. Public officials in the U.S. have also opposed independence and threatened aid. The Sunni majority areas are in the west, and are where the IS is strongest.
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To read EMET’s fact sheet on Iran, Iran Fact Sheet
Know as Persia until 1935, Iran became an Islamic republic in 1979 after the ruling monarchy was overthrown and Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was forced into exile. Shia Muslim Islamist clerical forces led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini established a theocratic system of government with ultimate political authority vested in a learned religious scholar referred to as the Supreme Leader who, according to the constitution, is accountable only to the Assembly of Experts – an elected 86-member body of clerics. Now the Supreme Leader is the Ayatollah Ali Khameini. Iran’s current President if Hassan Rouhani. The President is elected in an undemocratic process every four years.Read More →