The Iraqi government was created by a new constitution in 2005, after the fall of Saddam Hussein. The government is led by a Kurdish President, currently Fuad Masum, a Shia Prime Minister, currently Haider Abadi, and a Sunni Arab Vice President, currently, Khodair Khozaei. The Prime Minister is the dominant leader. The population of Iraq is estimated to be 38 million, with two official languages, Arabic and Kurdish. Currently, the once powerful Islamic State (IS) Caliphate (both in Iraq and Syria) is in decline. The Kurdish areas in the north are considering secession from Iraq. The central government, as well as Iran and Turkey, all vociferously opposed Kurdish independence. The Iraqi army engaged with the Kurds over Kirkuk, with Iran and the PMF’s supportive of Iraqi forces. The Kurdish authorities retreated and are now only in the official Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) areas. Public officials in the U.S. have also opposed independence and threatened aid. The Sunni majority areas are in the west, and are where the IS is strongest.