Michael Makovsky since 2013 has been President and CEO of the Jewish Institute for National Security of America (JINSA), a leading Washington, D.C.-based policy and educational organization focused on U.S. defense and national security issues in the Middle East. Makovsky has worked extensively on U.S.-Israel defense ties, U.S. policy toward Iran, Syria, Iraq, Gaza, the Persian Gulf, and the role of energy in U.S. national security policy, and the Eastern Mediterranean, Previously, Makovsky served as Foreign Policy Director for the Bipartisan Policy Center, special assistant in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, advising senior Defense, and an energy market analyst for various investment firms. Makovsky has written articles, op-eds, and editorials for various publications on U.S. national security issues primarily involving the Middle East as well as energy markets. He is also the author of Churchill’s Promised Land (Yale University Press), a diplomatic-intellectual history of Winston Churchill’s complex relationship with Zionism. Makovsky has a Ph.D. in diplomatic history from Harvard University, an MBA in finance from Columbia Business School, and a B.A. in history from the University of Chicago.